Dharamshila Narayana Superspeciality Hospital

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Diagnosis and Staging Work up

Oncologists use a wide range of diagnostic procedures to confirm the Lung Cancer, which include:

  • History and physical examination, and imaging with chest X-ray and CT scan or MRI.
  • Positron emission tomography (PET) scanning is a specialized imaging technique that uses short-lived radioactive drugs to produce three-dimensional coloured images of those substances in the tissues within the body, in a growing tumor.
  • Bone scans are used to create images of bones on a computer screen or on film.
  • Sputum cytology: The diagnosis of lung cancer requires confirmation of malignant cells by a pathologist. The simplest method to establish the diagnosis is the examination of sputum under a microscope.
  • Bronchoscopy: Examination of the airways through a probe inserted through the nose or mouth may reveal areas of tumor that can be sampled (biopsied) for diagnosis by a pathologist.
  • Needle biopsy: Fine needle aspiration (FNA) through the skin, most commonly performed with radiological imaging for guidance, may be useful in retrieving cells for diagnosis from tumor nodules in the lungs.
  • Thoracentesis: Sometimes lung cancers lead to an accumulation of fluid in the space between the lungs and chest wall (called a pleural effusion). Aspiration of a sample of this fluid with a thin needle (thoracentesis) may reveal the cancer cells and establish diagnosis.

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