Dharamshila Narayana Superspeciality Hospital offer you comprehensive and cutting edge diagnostic facilities.
There is a wide array of methods used to diagnose cancer. These tests are best conducted by an expert at our cancer centers. After the diagnosis, a second opinion from an expert is strongly recommended. Some types of cancer, particularly lymphomas, can be hard to classify. Accurate identification of cancer allows our oncologists to choose the most effective treatment for you. The most common diagnostic methods include:
Several other techniques are used to produce an internal picture of the body and its structures. Following are the various imaging methods:
- Gamma Camera
The gamma camera is a variable-angle diagnostic instrument. Its utilization involves injecting the patient with a pharmaceutical agent labeled with a small amount of radioactive material. The pharmaceutical is selected on the basis of the specific organ or tissue to be evaluated (such as heart, lungs, bone, kidney, liver, gall bladder function, thyroid and brain). The radiopharmaceutical isotopes used are very safe and procedures can be done easily as an outpatient. Nuclear imaging procedures are available in our state-of-the-art centre.
- Computed Tomography (CT)
CT scans use special X-rays to capture images of internal organs from several different angles. The images are sent to a computer, which generates cross-sections of body tissues and organs. CT scans can also be done very comfortably and quickly, often in as few as seven minutes. The final images show several types of tissue very clearly, including organs such as the liver, spleen, pancreas, kidneys, lungs, oesophagus, and stomach. CT imaging can uncover cancers in many parts of the body. Ultrasound and CT scans can also be used as guidance for biopsies.
- Radiography (X-ray)
Radiography is one of the oldest forms of imaging examinations, and is still the most frequently used. This imaging technique uses low energy X-rays to produce an image of the organs and tissues. A typical X-ray examination lasts about 15 minutes per each area of interest, during which time several images may be taken.
- Ultrasound (also called sonography or ultrasonography)
Ultrasound is an imaging examination that uses the energy of high-frequency sound waves to produce an image of the organs and tissues. The tissues will reflect, absorb, and refract the waves differently, and these "echoes" are collected and transformed into an image. A standard ultrasound examination may last up to 60 minutes, during which several images may be taken.
Mammography uses low energy X-rays to produce images of the breast tissue. These images are used to screen for breast cancer or to evaluate symptoms (e.g., lumps, thickening, etc). A typical mammogram lasts about 20 minutes, during which time several images may be taken.
- Blood Tests
Some of the tumors release substances called tumor markers in the blood which can be detected with the help of blood tests. For example, blood test for prostate cancer determines the amount of prostate specific antigen (PSA).
- Histopathological reporting of small biopsies as well as surgical resection specimens, giving precise extent of disease with pathological staging.
- Frozen sections Rapid intraoperative histopathological opinion is provided aiding in establishing
and guiding the surgeon in type and extent of surgery required. This ensures optimal surgical resections.
- Diagnosis/exclusion of cancer.
- Clearance of surgical resection margins.
- Status of lymph nodes.
- Immunohistochemistry A wide and exhaustive panel of antibodies for Immunohistochemistry are available, helping in
- Differentiating between cancer and various processes mimicking cancer.
- Establishing precise type of tumor.
- Subtyping of tumors, especially Lymphomas.
- Detecting minimal residual disease.
- Detecting site of primary tumor in metastases of unknown origin (MUO).
- Establishing hormone receptor status of the tumor, especially in breast cancers.
Second opinion on outside slides/blocks and review of pathologist′s opinion on biopsies and/or surgeries done elsewhere is also provided.
Cervical Pap Smear in women over forty years of age is carried out free of cost as a part of Cancer Screening programme for Women at DHRC.
Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) of lumps / swelling / space occupying lesions is carried out in the laboratory by the cytopathologist. FNAC is also carried out under radiological (USG/CT) guidance for deep-seated or non-palpable lesions, rendering virtually all body sites accessible to the Fine Needle (for FNAC), thus allowing reliable tissue diagnoses at low cost and minimal discomfort to the patients.
Cytological examination of body fluids (ascetic fluid, pleural fluid, CSF, urine, etc.) is carried out to ascertain the nature of the constituent cells and the etiological process.