The following factors may raise a person’s risk of developing bladder cancer:
Tobacco use. The most common risk factor is cigarette smoking, although smoking cigars and pipes can also raise the risk of developing bladder cancer. Smokers are four to seven times more likely to develop bladder cancer than nonsmokers.
Age. The likelihood of being diagnosed with bladder cancer increases with age. More than 70% of people with bladder cancer are older than 65 years old.
Gender. Men are three to four times more likely to develop bladder cancer than women, but women are more likely to die from bladder cancer than men.
Chemicals. Chemicals used in textile, rubber, leather, dye, paint, or print industries; some naturally occurring chemicals; and chemicals called aromatic amines can increase the risk of bladder cancer.
Chronic bladder problems. Bladder stones and infections may increase the risk of bladder cancer. Bladder cancer may be more common for people who are paralyzed from the waist down and have had many urinary infections.
Cyclophosphamide (Cytoxan, Clafen, Neosar) use. People who have taken the chemotherapy drug cyclophosphamide have a higher risk of developing bladder cancer.
Personal history. People who have already had bladder cancer once are more likely to develop bladder cancer again.
Arsenic exposure. Arsenic is a naturally occurring substance that can cause health problems if consumed in large amounts. In drinking water, it has been associated with an increased risk of bladder cancer. The chance of being exposed to arsenic depends on where you live and whether you get your water from a well or from a system that meets the standards for acceptable arsenic levels.