Cancer begins in cells, the building blocks that make up tissues. Tissues make up the bladder and other organs of the body.
Normal bladder cells grow and divide to form new cells as the body needs them. When normal cells grow old or get damaged, they die, and new cells take their place.
Sometimes, this process goes wrong. New cells form when the body does not need them, and old or damaged cells do not die as they should. The buildup of extra cells often forms a mass of tissue called a growth or tumor.
Growths on the bladder can be benign (not cancer) or malignant (cancer):
Bladder cancer begins in cells on the surface of the bladder. Over time, the bladder cancer can invade more deeply into the bladder and nearby tissues.
Bladder cancer cells can spread by breaking away from the bladder tumor. They can travel through lymph vessels to nearby lymph nodes. Also, cancer cells can spread through the blood vessels to the lungs, liver, or bones. The process of spreading of cancer cells from the tissue in which they arise to other tissues elsewhere is called metastasis.
After spreading, cancer cells may attach to other tissues and grow to form new tumors that may damage those tissues.